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After the Constitution of India came into force on January 26, 1950, the Inter-University Board at its annual meeting held in Madras, passed a resolution stressing the need for an all-India bar and emphasising the desirability of having uniformly high standards for law examinations in different Universities of the country in view of the fact that a Supreme Court of India had been established.

In May 1950, the Madras Provincial Lawyers Conference held under the presidency of Shri S. Varadachariar resolved that the Government of India should appoint a committee for the purpose of evolving a scheme for an all-India Bar and amending the Indian Bar Councils Act to bring it in conformity with the new Constitution.

At its meeting held on October 1, 1950, the Bar Council of Madras adopted that resolution.


Shri Syed Mohammed Ahmad Kazmi, a Member of Parliament, introduced on April 12, 1951, a comprehensive bill to amend the India Bar Councils Act.

The Government of India took the view that in the changed circumstances of independence, a comprehensive Bill sponsored by the Government was necessary. In August 1951, the then Minister of Law announced on the floor of the House that the Government of India was considering a proposal to set up a Committee of Inquiry to go into the problem in detail. The Committee was constituted and asked to examine and report on:

1.    The desirability and feasibility of a completely unified Bar for the whole of India,

2.    The continuance or abolition of the dual system of counsel and solicitor (or agent) which obtains in the Supreme court and in the Bombay and Calcutta High Courts,

3.    The continuance or abolition of different classes of legal practitioners, such as advocates of the Supreme Court, advocates of the various High Courts, district court pleaders, mukhtars (entitled to practice in criminal courts only), revenue agents, and income-tax practitioners,

4.    The desirability and feasibility of establishing a single Bar Council for (1) the whole of India and (2) for each State,

5.    The establishment of a separate Bar Council for the Supreme Court,

6.    The consolidation and revision of the various enactments (Central as well as State) relating to legal practitioners, and

7.    All other connected matters.

This All India Bar Committee was headed by the Hon’ble Shri S. R. Das, Judge, Supreme Court of India. The Committee consisted of the following members:

1.    Shri M. C. Setalvad, Attorney General of India,

2.    Dr. Bakshi Tek Chand, retired High Court Judge,

3.    Shri V. K. T. Chari, Advocate-General of Madras,

4.    Shri V. Rajaram Aiyar, Advocate-General of Hyderabad,

5.    Shri Syed A, Kazmi, M.P., Advocate, Allahabad,

6.    Shri C. C. Shah, M.P., Solicitor, Bombay, and

7.    Shri D. M. Bhandari, M.P., Advocate, Rajasthan High Court.


The All India Bar Committee submitted its detailed report on March 30, 1953. The report contained the proposals for constituting a Bar Council for each state and an All-India Bar Council at the national level as the apex body for regulating the legal profession as well as to supervise the standard of legal education in India.

Meanwhile, the Law Commission of India had been assigned the job of preparing a report on the reforms of judicial administration.


To implement the recommendations of the All-India Bar Committee and taking into account the Law Commission’s recommendations relating to the legal profession, a comprehensive Advocates Bill was introduced in the Parliament which resulted in the the Advocates Act, 1961.

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